Global Green Chelating Agent Market 2017-2024


The global manufacturing industry is witnessing an increase of more than 15% of global GDP, this in turn will increase demand. The manufacturing industry provides more than 13% of jobs to people worldwide

Green Chelating Agents Market size will witness substantial growth due to their high use in the residential and cleaning industry. It is an environmentally friendly method of cleaning applications and is widely used in various industries. It is the formation of two or more coordinates between different atoms.

These are organic compounds that have a positive effect on the environment.

Its chemical properties and water-solubility have increased its demand in various industrial and residential applications.

A growing housing job has accelerated the use of products around the world. It is widely used in dish washing, surface cleaning and laundry detergents. Residential construction activity is growing with an increasing population with a significant need for clean and well-maintained homes. The effectiveness of the product in cleaning supports its growing use in homes. The increased construction of residential buildings will increase the growth of the green chelating agent market.

Its wide use in the manufacturing industry is expected to boost the size of the green chelating agent market. It is used to clean equipment and machines to provide better function and operation. Its ecofriendly nature has supported its consumption in industry as well as manufacturing activities on a very large scale.

The increasing need for water treatment due to increasing water pollution has driven the demand for the green chelating agent market. The components are used to control water scale, water hardness and scale forming calcium and magnesium in water. This place is placed in a water treatment plant for pure water used in the daily activities of the community.

The growth of the pulp and paper production industry will positively affect the market share of green chelating agents. It is used for ozone stabilization and hydrogen peroxide action on the pulp which prevents it from reversing brightness and protecting the potential of bleach. The increasing demand for the pulp and paper industry will support the demand for products in the estimated time period.

The demand for consumer products comprising the pharmaceutical and food industries is increasing at a faster pace. This product prevents canned food from leading to oxidation. It is used in the pharmaceutical industry to stabilize formulations, antioxidants and is added to blood stored in blood banks to prevent clots. The high use of components in both consumer-friendly industries will increase the demand for the green chelating agent market.

The green chelating agent market report consists of:

  • Methodology and Scope
  • Executive Summary
  • Industry Insights green chelating agent
  • Industry segmentation
  • Industry sizes, forecasts and growth expectations, 2017-2024
  • Analysis of industrial ecosystems. Insights into raw materials
  • Technology insight
  • Regulatory framework
  • Industry dynamics
  • Major growth opportunities
  • Porter’s analysis
  • Company market share, 2017
  • Competitor Profiles

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Market Size Chelating Agent by Product (Aminopolycarboxylic Acid [APCA], Sodium Gluconate, Organophosphate), By Application (Pulp & Paper, Household & amp; Cleaning, Agrochemicals, Water Treatment, Chemical Processing, Consumer Products), Industrial Analysis Reports, Regional Outlook (US, Canada, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Italy, China, India, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, GCC), Growth Potential, Price Trends, Competitive Market Share

Global Warming & amp; The effect

Global warming and depletion of the ozone layer have been a concern over the past two decades and recently have become a very prominent global problem and a topic. While many opponents argue against the existence of the greenhouse effect, evidence of it can be seen all over nature.

Each year the United States spends more than 20 million dollars on fossil fuels.

The country emits a quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases; the most prominent of these is carbon dioxide, which is released from burning fossil fuels. Global warming has been a global issue for many years now. Some countries and people claim to be only vaguely concerned about the causes because they are either unaware or unaware of the problem. Roger Revelle, an eranographer, helped to call matters out to the public. After not receiving much feedback on the causes, he criticized a different government in jocular ways. He called warming “a great geophysical experiment.” He said, “The experiment is to load the atmosphere with as much carbon dioxide as possible, add some other harmful gases, and see what happens.” Recently, several countries have passed laws to prevent the destiny of the world from overheating. Even with the adoption of new rules and regulations, the earth continues to warm every year. The minimal effort made to reduce the release of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels, increases the rate and intensity of global warming.

The most prominent effect of global warming has been in climate change over the past few years.

Many people do not realize that global warming causes and changes all kinds of weather. Heating the earth causes the magnitude and strength of the weather conditions to increase. As the oceans get warmer, the intensity of the storms amplifies strength and destruction. In addition, many cities and cost regions have recently experienced flooding, which is caused by melting polar ice. Perennial Arctic ice is decreasing in area by nine percent every year. In the last thirty years, more than ten national records were set for the highest temperatures in summer and winter. Drought and forest fires have occurred dramatically more frequently in the last century. All of these effects have been directly linked to the release of greenhouse gases.

Other areas affected by global warming are the animal kingdom and nature.

The number of animals per species has decreased every year due to harsh environmental changes. When the polar ice melts, all the creatures that live there are left without shelter. For example, since seal nests have melted, the number of seals has dropped. Events that occur in spring, such as mating, migrating, laying eggs, and returning from hibernation have taken place about 5.1 days earlier than they were fifty years ago. The early events of this event prove that the earth is getting warmer every year. More evidence of warming is evidence that many animals are traveling farther from the equator as they migrate. Although these changes have occurred with various creatures, butterflies and mosquitoes are being found that are farthest from their natural habitat. Although butterflies do not cause any known problems with the environment, they carry malaria. This deadly disease has spread dangerously to new areas around the world. If the world continues to warm up, this problem, along with many others, will continue to grow.

A third type of evidence for global warming can be found in plants.

The vegetation in an area is different together with the climate of the same area. In many parts of the world, flowers bloom 7 days in advance and trees reproduce 10 days earlier, both since 1900. Because the growing season varies from very wet to very dry, agricultural growth cannot adapt. In recent years, the region’s crops have been flooded and dry. Due to depletion of ozone, many plants cannot survive. Another problem is movement and an increase in allergens. The carbon in the atmosphere allows plants to go through photosynthesis more quickly, allowing allergens to grow in numbers. This evidence found all over nature makes it very clear that global warming is a big problem.

Global Steps From Gino Green Global

Prince launched the Gino Green Global clothing line with a “G” purposefully to look like a number 9. This idea is quickly starting to get the attention of the NYC fashion conscious and crowd setting trends.

When it comes to the head-turning, neck-breaking, styles and fashions found in clothing, global green gino is said to be one of them. The global gino green clothing line is one of many hip-hop inspired clothing lines that have become immensely popular among the hip-hop devotees for their unique designs that catch the eyes of trend setters and fashion forward people. But what is a global green gino? Who founded it? What makes it so popular that people are racing to get their hands on it?

The Gino Green Global

The Gino Green Global branded clothing line was founded and designed by Prince Mayol, along with a group of others including his brother Anthony Mayol and business partner Norman Wells. Since the beginning of Prince’s profession as a fashion designer, he has always had a passion for printmaking, passion for color and fashion design.

Prince launched a global gino green clothing line with a “G” purposefully to look like a 9 figure. This idea is quickly starting to get the attention of the NYC fashion sensible style and crowd setting trends. To advance their brand recognition, the team also launched an aggressive and strategic national marketing plan which included embarking on a fourteen city tour by way of a wrapped tour bus and feasting like rock star energy.

Gino Green Global also performed at NYC’s most acclaimed basketball tournaments, such as the highly publicized Ruckers tournament and the Nike-sponsored Dyckman Summer League, the most defining Hip Hop Awards event, album, and Sneaker release party showing support to everyone who support them and also make sure their distinctive look is recognized and remembered.

Due to these numerous public appearances, global gino greens have the ability to approach list celebrities such as Papoose, 50 cents, Denzel Washington, Busta Rymes, R Kelly, UGK, Rick Ross, Soulja Boy T-Pain, Ed Lover, Don Omar, Daddy Yankee. , Tego Calderon, and Don Dinero, provide them all with customization

Because of this brand, people from urban communities have found new ways to show their devotion to hip-hop music and fashion. Gino Green Global’s influence on urban communities helps shape urban fashion at the global level.

The Growth of Slot Machine and Gambling Globalization

In the recent past we have seen many examples of slot machine and gambling globalization. For example in Canada, there are now casinos all over it that offer a very interesting gambling experience to their guests. In fact it is said that this has created a whole new face of gambling in this part of the world. There are two contrasting views on this issue. One being that Canada is still a conservative country and the other being that it is opening up and allowing freedom to people to make money where they want.

Slots are considered to be one of the most common form of gambling and they have been in existence in this country since its inception. And today you can find a slot machine almost anywhere including at airports, railway stations, bus stations and even in our office buildings. This has lead to the modernization of machines and the creation of newer ones. What is also becoming very popular with the casino goers is the slot machine with the video screen installed. The advantage of this is that you get to watch what is happening on the screen in real time, which is very exciting when you are playing on these machines.

As far as the slot machine is concerned, it is just an automated machine that dispenses winning amounts in the form of spin after spin, which requires no intervention from the player. Today, many countries are beginning to see the benefits of allowing free trade between countries by installing slot machines in casinos from Starburst slot online. Some say that it may have begun as a means of promoting tourism but soon it would have grown into a billion dollar business. With the globalization happening all around us, maybe there will be more slot machine and gambling globalization.

Will you rise to the challenge of global warming?

Most of the solutions to global warming work around reducing the amount of energy we use, and the amount of emissions that are produced. This is something we can do, if more people take global warming seriously.

The general consensus among scientists is that global warming is happening, and we need to do something about it soon, otherwise we will face serious problems in the future. Most of the solutions to global warming work around reducing the amount of energy we use, and the amount of emissions that are produced. This is something we can do, if more people take global warming seriously.

We need to put the solution to the problem of global warming in place now. The temperature of the planet is gradually rising and we have contributed greatly to that increase. We generate large amounts of CO2 emissions through our use of coal, oil and natural gas, and those emissions destroy the ozone layer. Without quick action, we will cause serious damage at a level that could threaten our future on this planet, because the ozone layer will be too thin to protect us from the sun’s rays.

Time For Common Sense

This is one of those problems that won’t just go away all of a sudden. Some people joke ‘it would be nice if it were a few degrees warmer, what’s the big deal?’ but the problem needs to be dealt with now. Heat waves are no joke, and can kill the very young, the sick, or the elderly. Heat waves mean forest fires, which can destroy entire forests. Then there are droughts, and strange storms and winds that occur as an overall increase in temperature alters the weather system.

Reducing use and waste is a big step towards protecting the planet – even reducing water use can help. It may not seem like an obvious target, but water doesn’t magically arrive home – collecting and treating water takes resources, so reducing how much water you use can have a tapping effect and save a lot of resources.

For example, dams are built to collect water, and, while they are often used for hydro-electric power at the same time, dam construction can damage areas downstream. Dams changed the landscape, and in some cases the damage was irreparable. Sometimes, homes are built on new ground, and, while this may seem like a good thing, additional houses require more energy.

Policymakers need to work on solutions to global warming – even if it only offers tax incentives to be greener – money is a big motivator, and encouraging businesses to act in an environmentally efficient way will reduce our waste dramatically. Embrace change now, and save the future.

Global Copper Sulfate Market To Grow at 4% CAGR Over Next Five Years

Accounting for a large proportion of its global demand, the agricultural sector represents the biggest driver of the global copper sulfate market.

Copper sulfate is a chemical compound that is produced commercially by reacting copper with sulfuric acid. These salts exist as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, while pentahydrate (CuSO4 5H2O) is a bright blue salt. It is also known as blue stone or blue vitriol. The appearance of copper sulfate also varies. It generally appears in the form of crystals that are bright blue to green in color; One of the common forms of copper sulfate is the mineral chalcanthite, which occurs in many arid regions of the world. Copper sulfate is very soluble and dissolves easily in various materials. Many commercial manufacturers convert their copper sulfate in powder form prior to sale to make it easier to handle and mix with other ingredients.

Agricultural applications currently account for the majority of the global copper sulfate market.

In agriculture, copper sulfate is widely used as a micronutrient in animal feed and fertilizer. Its fungicidal properties are also used in the cultivation of grapes and tree fruits (Bordeaux Mix) and in animal hoof health applications. Apart from agriculture, copper sulfate is also used in a number of other industries. It is used as an electrolyte in copper refining and electroplating. The mining industry employs it as an activator in certain ores concentrations by the foam flotation process. The building trade uses copper sulfate in combination with other chemicals as a wood preservative. Our forecasts estimate global volume demand for copper sulfate to grow at a CAGR of around 4% over the next five years.


IMARC’s new TMMR “Copper Sulphate Technical Materials Market Report” provides technical, analytical and statistical insights into the copper sulfate market. Market analysis includes volume trends, value trends, price trends, key players, market breakdowns by region, market breakdowns by end-use industry, key success factors, key risk factors, raw material market trends, import trends, export trends, etc. Apart from market analysis, this report also provides comprehensive technical insights into copper sulfate.

This includes chemical information, manufacturing processes, chemical reactions involved, raw material requirements, mass balance, raw material conversion rates, etc. This study, which is based on desk research and several waves of primary qualitative research, is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and anyone else planning to get into the copper sulfate industry at any cost.

Know What is a Global Entry App

Global Entry is part of the Trusted Traveler Program offered by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to travelers deemed low risk. Global Entry members can skip queues at customs on arrival at any of the 75 participating airports in the United States and other parts of the world. To become part of the Global Entry program, one must submit an online application form. CBP then performs a thorough background check on each applicant.

Do you hate having to wait in long lines, especially at the airport? Does a boring security check feel that complicated to you? If you answered yes to both questions, then it’s time for you to get your Global Entry card.

The Global Entry application process is fairly easy. However, it is important to note that not all applicants are guaranteed approval.

Here’s how to apply for your Global Entry card.

Submit an online form

The first step in the Global Entry application process is to create your Trusted Traveler Program (TTP) account. Each applicant must create their TTP account, regardless of their age.

After logging in to your TTP account, complete the online application form. A non-refundable $ 100 fee must be paid in advance after submitting the application form. It would be best to check with your credit card provider or bank if they reimburse you for the Global Entry application, as some banks do.

Expect to provide personal information on your application, such as full name, date of birth and place of residence. You will also be asked to reveal physical identity characteristics, such as height and eye color. It is important to fill out the application form as honestly as possible and provide only true and complete information. Failure to do so may result in CBP rejecting your Global Entry application.

Wait for the live interview schedule

After an extensive review of your application and a background check, conditionally approved applicants will be given a date for their in-person interview via their TTP account. Interviews will be conducted at your nearest Global Entry Enrollment Center.

On the date of your interview, remember to bring your valid passport and other forms of identification, such as a valid driver’s license or ID card for verification purposes. For legal permanent residence, you must present your permanent resident card.

The interview itself will be quick. Expect it to be around ten to fifteen minutes. The Global Entry officer must verify the information you submit in your online application form. You may be asked about your current employment status or your previous employment history among other questions that may be based on their background check. Global Entry Officers already know the answers to these questions, they just need to check your integrity and honesty.

After the interview, you will be asked to take your fingerprint and official photo and you are done with the entire application process. All you have to do is wait for your card to be sent to you.

It is important to conduct yourself professionally during the interview. Any disrespectful act against a Global Entry officer interviewing you or other staff at the center may incur your application fee.

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, there have been some reported delays in processing Global Entry applications, as some Registration Centers are closed. However, CBP announced that they will open in August.

Wait for your card to be delivered

Once done, all you have to do is wait for your Global Entry card to be sent to you in seven to ten days. Some users reported receiving their cards even before the given timeframe. Always check your TTP account for updates regarding the status of your Global Entry application.

Use it on your next trip

When you receive your Global Entry card, you can now use it on your next trip. You can insert a Global Entry card when booking online ticket reservations so you can streamline security checks at airports. When arriving at one of the airports with Global Entry kiosks, all you have to do is scan your Global Entry card to pass through Customs and Immigration.

The entire Global Entry application process is simple. However, due to the current global pandemic, expect some delays in processing your application. However, Global Entry is one of the things that can make traveling faster and easier for you.

Top 10 Unique Experiences in Sweden

Whether it’s your first time to Sweden, or you are looking for something off the beaten path, we’re rounding up the top unique activities from historical traditions to quintessential modern Swedish culture. Consider this your ultimate guide to discovering what makes Sweden so unique.


1.   Get Hands on at The Abba Museum

Abba put Sweden on the world map as a music powerhouse with their legendary win at the Eurovision song contest. The Abba Museum is full of interactive exhibits where you can record songs, virtually try on costumes, and become the 5th member of Abba with on-stage simulations. It’s easy to see why the museum’s motto is

‘Walk in. Dance out.’


2. See the Northern Lights

The best time to see the Northern Lights is in winter when the nights are long. They don’t happen every night, but if you’re lucky enough to see them, you’ll be amazed at nature’s greatest light show. It’s no wonder why see the Northern Lights is well-known as a top 10 bucket list item: this incredible phenomena is as breathtaking as it is elusive.


3. Explore the Vasa Ship

The Vasa was a gigantic wooden battleship built for the Royal Swedish Navy. It was supposed to demonstrate Sweden’s role as a colonial power. A massive 2-story wooden ship loaded with tons of firepower and ammunition: what could go wrong? Unfortunately, the ship capsized almost immediately after it departed Stockholm’s harbor and sank in front of hundreds of onlookers. In 1961, the ship was located and brought to the surface after 333 years underwater. It can now be explored at Scandinavia’s most-visited museum, the Vasa Museum.


4. Wander the Haga Neighborhood in Gothenburg

As Sweden’s second-biggest city, Gothenburg already draws plenty of visitors. Perhaps the highlight of your trip to Gothenburg is the neighborhood of Haga. The neighborhood’s well-preserved wooden houses show how Swedish people lived in the 19th century.

5. Drink Glögg

Served around Christmastime, this fruity mulled wine will warm you from the inside out. It is a Swedish staple when the temperatures drop and the days grow short.

6. Visit the Underground ‘Art Gallery’ in The Stockholm Metro Tunnelbana

Officially the world’s longest art gallery, measuring 110km (68 miles), the metro system of Sweden is not just a people mover, it is home to thousands of pieces of art. Even the tunnels themselves are stunning examples of artistic architecture.

7. Stay Overnight at The Ice Hotel

The Ice Hotel only exists in winter (for obvious reasons) and is one of the most unique experiences in Sweden. You can sleep overnight in a room made entirely of ice, or just grab a cocktail at their ice bar.

8. Channel Your Inner Child at Villa Villekulla (Pippi Longstocking’s House)

Swedish author Astrid Lindgren is the creator of the world-famous Pippi Longstocking character. In Gotland, visitors can tour the Villa Villekulla house used on the set of the live-action Pippi movie. It’s actually located in an amusement park called Kneippbyn which offers a water park and other attractions for a great family excursion.


Right-Hand Traffic versus Left-Hand Traffic

For all of the cultural differences, language barriers, and tension and strife on this orb, the various countries of the world actually seem to agree on a wide number of things: only Vatican City is not a member of the United Nations; all but three of 193 sovereign countries follow the metric system (Burma/Myanmar, Liberia, and the United States); only Monaco, Nauru and Vatican City are not affiliated to FIFA; only Andorra, Cuba, Monaco, Liechtenstein, North Korea, and Vatican City have yet to join the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (one of the five institutions constituting the World Bank). The International Organization for Standardization even has 165 members. But there is a huge gap in one very significant standard: what side of the road to drive on.

Countries in red drive on the right; countries in blue drive on the left.

66% of the world’s population (163 countries and territories) drive on the right, while the remaining 34% (76 countries and territories) drive on the left. Currently, all countries have uniform rules on driving except China, which was a completely right-driving country until absorbing left-driving Hong Kong in 1997 and Macau in 1999 (which results in a pretty interesting-looking border crossing when one crosses into mainland China and has to change lanes). Countries switch driving directions more often than we think; just last year, Samoa switched to driving on the left after a century of driving on the right in order to allow its consumer to import cars more cheaply from left-driving Australia and New Zealand rather than the right-driving US. Since 1967, five countries have switched driving directions; the other four to do so (Sweden 1967, Iceland 1968, Burma 1970, Ghana 1974) went in the opposite direction, joining the majority of countries around the world in driving on the right-hand side of the road. In the early days of automobile driving, switching sides was much more common as countries got their rules sorted out.

Countries in orange switched from left to right; countries in purple switched from right to left; countries in green had varying rules in different locations before standardising to the right.

The countries today which still drive on the left tend to share one thing in common: a British colonial legacy. These lands were either directly ruled by the United Kingdom (or, in turn, one of its possessions) or is in such close proximity to such countries that are just more convenient to align themselves that way. Which is why countries like Thailand drive on the left, or why Indonesia and Suriname stayed on the left long after the Netherlands switched to the right despite British rule having only occurred briefly in Java during the Napoleonic Wars. Three former Portuguese possessions (Goa, Macau and Mozambique) stayed on the left even when the rest of the empire switched to the right in 1928 precisely for reasons of proximity to countries that also drove on the left (similarly, it can be argued that the influence of the United States and Napoleonic France caused many countries to adopt right-side driving). There remain a fair number of border crossings where drivers are forced to switch sides; these are almost exclusively the province of Africa and Asia (the only such crossing in Europe is at the entrance to the Channel Tunnel in Kent, while the only such crossing in the entire western hemisphere is the Takutu River Bridge between Guyana and Brazil).

Why, the question may be asked, do we even have these differences in the first place? These differences predate automobiles; this goes back to medieval times and is basically a reflection of the fact that most people are right-handed. Countries, where wagon teams were driven by a person riding a horse, tended to drive on the right, mounting the horse on the left and whipping the horse with the right. Countries, where wagon teams were driven by someone riding directly in the wagon, tended to drive on the left, as the driver had to be situated in the right-hand side of the wagon to ensure he was making contact when attempting to the whip the horse and not ending up just whipping the side of the wagon. Being seated on the right-hand side meant staying to the left gave the driver the best line of view looking down the road.

Surprisingly, this rather firm difference between countries regarding right-and-left-side automobile driving is not reflected when it comes to rail traffic, where countries are all over the board. And let’s not even begin to get into the differences in traffic signals…


Further Reading

Hodder, N. (n.d.). Left/Right traffic changeovers at borders.
Available at Accessed 1 November 2010.

Lucas, B. (2005). Which side of the road do they drive on? August 2005.
Available at Accessed 1 November 2010.

McGregor, C.H. (2010). Why do some countries drive on the right and others on the left? World Standards, 10 April 2010.
Available at Accessed 1 November 2010.

Texin, T. (2010). Why Don’t We Drive On The Same Side Of The Road Around The World? Internationalization, Localization, Standards, and Amusements. Available at Accessed 1 November 2010.

Vanderbilt, T.(2009). Whose side of the road are you on? Salon, 14 August 2009.
Available at Accessed 1 November 2010.


this content was originally posted by author ‘kuschk’ on


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The Longest Train Ride In The World

The Longest Train Ride in the World

In March 2010, news sites were abuzz with the announcement of a proposed Chinese-backed high-speed Eurasian rail line that could whip passengers between London and Beijing at speeds of up to 345 km/h (215 mph), completing the 17-country, 8 160 km (5 070 mi) journey in just two days. While such a fantastical project is likely decades away, completing such a long trip exclusively by train is not. In fact, you can make an even longer trip right now and never leave the train except for switching cars. The catch, of course, is that it will take you much longer than just two days (and probably cost you a fair bit in the process).

The longest single uninterrupted train journey, including transfers, does indeed stretch beyond London and Beijing. Starting from the Portuguese coast, one can travel by train not just into China but all the way to southern Vietnam, a distance of 17 000 km (10 566 mi).

Starting in Portugal at Porto, the first two days of this trip is (relatively) simple, as all of the countries one would travel through are members of the European Union, and all but Poland are covered by Eurail, a consortium of rail carriers which collaborate in selling tickets. While this ensures some level in coordination in travel, and a Eurail pass can grant free access to much of the route, supplemental travel and reservation fees still apply to most high-speed and sleeping trains.

Using the shortest timetable, the distance from the coastal centre of Porto to the Polish capital of Warsaw can be covered in 40 hours and 33 minutes (including time zone changes) with just four transfers. From Porto, travellers would head one hour south along the Atlantic coast on a high speed train to Coimbra. After a one hour layover at Coimbra, a regular train heads east across the width of Portugal (very slowly, it must be said) before carrying northwestern Spain via Salamanca, Valladolid, and Vitoria-Gasteiz into France at Hendaye (reservations are compulsory on this trip which is seated second-class travel only). Once in France, it’s a transfer onto the TGV (but not the high-speed trains, which won’t ply this particular route until 2017) for a six-hour trip to Paris. An hour-long transfer on the Paris Metro takes you to the north end of the city, where a high-speed train carries you all the way to Cologne in just three hours, stopping only at Brussels, Liege, and Aachen. It’s a three hour wait in Cologne before you can transfer onto the train heading eastbound from Amsterdam to Warsaw. The travel time from Cologne across Germany and Poland to Warsaw via Dortmund, Hannover, Berlin, Rzepin, and Poznan is ten hours, but at least it’s in comfort on a sleeping car.

The TGV station at Liege. Source: A. Russeth,
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) licence.

From Poland, travellers have two options: travel through Belarus, which requires a transit visa one must apply for in person that takes days to process; or take the slightly longer but more sensible option, which is to continue north through the Baltic states and then continue east to Russia, which would add a day and some euro to your bill but would remove some of the hassle. For the purposes of this entry, however, we’re only interested in the longest direct route possible by train, and the train through Belarus is the direct route. That trip will leave Warsaw at 22:45 and take over a day to complete. Incorporating two time zone changes, the long 1 311 km ride to Moscow takes 26 hours and 25 minutes.

Make plans ahead of time for a day in Moscow, because it’s an 18 hour and 25 minute layover before you board the train that will take you almost to the Pacific Ocean. From Moscow, it’s a transfer onto the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway. But sticking with the premise of the longest possible direct route, this won’t incorporate a trip along the length of the mainline all the way to Vladivostok. Instead, after making an epic journey across the bulk of Russia via Perm, Yekaterinburg, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Omsk, this train turns south at Ulan-Ude into Mongolia before arriving in Beijing six nights and 7 622 km after leaving Moscow. The Moscow-Ulan Bator-Beijing train is a comfortable ride, and rather inexpensive considering the huge distance involved at $804 for a berth in a 4-sleeper and $1 131 for a berth in a 2-sleeper. You will have to stop at the Mongolian-Chinese border for a four-hour wheel switchover as China’s railways operate on a narrower gauge than Russia and Mongolia.

The Ulan Bator-Beijing Train. Source: Sistak,
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) licence.

From Beijing, the final leg of your cross-Eurasia journey begins. It will be somewhat of a rush to make it from Beijing Central Station to Beijing West to catch the train to Hanoi, but the opening of the Beijing Subway’s new Line 9 next month will allow you not to have to cheat by taking a bus. Travelling south via Zhengzhou, Guilin, and Nanning, there is a change of train at the Vietnamese border as Vietnam uses a one-metre gauge for it rail tracks. Hanoi is just over four hours from the border. Once in the Vietnamese capital, it’s an eleven-hour layover before the 33-hour, 1 726 km (1 072 mi) trip to Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City, where you reach the end of your long ride. The ride across Vietnam is the cheapest, ranging between US$50 and $78 dollars for the entire length of the country, and because of the need to rebuild the entire rail system from scratch after the Vietnam War, the trains are rather new and pleasant.

Source: M. Rijavec,
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) licence.

All told, the 17 000 km (10 566 mi) journey takes 327 hours, including time zone changes. That’s over 13-and-a-half days. Going the express route, you might be able to pull it off for just over US$2 000, and you may still be able to book first-class for US$3 400 (but take those figures with a grain of salt since everyone from travel agents to local authorities to amenity providers will be sure to add to the final total). Below is a sample itinerary compiled from timetables of the various local rail authorities. Who’s up for a trip?

  • Porto-Coimbra 1:05, US$17.33-$28.66
  • Coimbra layover 0:56
  • Coimbra-Hendaye 12:33, US$94.50-$308.97
  • Hendaye layover 0:51
  • Hendaye-Paris Montparnasse 5:54, US$117-$285
  • Paris Montparnasse-Paris Nord 0:55, US$2.27
  • Paris Nord layover 1:11
  • Paris Nord-Koln 3:14, US$46-$254
  • Koln layover 3:13
  • Koln-Warsaw 11:57, US$388-$568
  • Warsaw layover 2:40
  • Warsaw-Moscow 26:25 $216-$328
  • Moscow layover 18:25
  • Moscow-Beijing 136:29, $804-$1 131
  • Beijing subway transfer window 1:41, US$0.31
  • Beijing-Hanoi 55:25, US$320-$406
  • Hanoi layover 10:50
  • Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Saigon 33:10, US$50-$78

All prices were hastily sourced from various travel sites. They are shown for descriptive purposes only and should not be considered exact. Always be sure to research fares extensively when travel planning.


Further Reading

Moore, M. (2010). King’s Cross to Beijing in two days on new high-speed rail network. The Telegraph, 8 March 2010.
Available at Accessed 27 November 2011.

Simpson, P. and D. Wilkes (2010). Orient super express: From London to Beijing by train… in just TWO days. Daily Mail, 9 March 2010.
Available at Accessed 27 November 2011.

Smith, M. (2011). How to travel by Trans-Siberian Railway from London to China & Japan. The Man in Seat Sixty-One, 16 November 2011.
Available at Accessed 28 November 2011.

Way to Russia Guides (2009). The Best Train Routes to Russia with Timetables, Prices, and a Map. Way to Russia, 14 August 2009.
Available at Accessed 27 November 2011.


this content was originally posted by author ‘kuschk’ on


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Bridge of the Horns, Cities of Light: Will They Ever Actually Be Built?

As wild as any megaproject ever seriously considered is the Bridge of the Horns, the massive structure announced in 2007 that would bridge the 28.5 km Bab-el-Mandeb, the strait separating Africa from the Arabian Peninsula (or, more specifically, Djibouti from Yemen) that joins the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. The plan borders on pure fantasy: a massive six-lane causeway (including the world’s longest suspension bridge, which would be 5 kilometres long in order to accommodate the massive amount of ships that pass through the Red Sea via the Suez Canal) carrying up to 100 000 vehicles per day, along with four light rail lines that would carry up to 50 000 passengers per day, and gas and water pipelines.

Along with the bridges, two massive cities (one on the Djiboutian side, one on the Yemeni side) would be built. These cities would be known as ‘Al-Noor cities’(‘cities of light’). It is hoped that the cities would be models of sustainability and humanitarian values built entirely using green technologies and powered by renewable energy sources, as well as bring much needed economic stability to tiny Djibouti, turning the country into a major economic hub as a new go-between for Africa and the Middle East (the country already experienced a slight boom when neighbouring Ethiopia lost sea access after Eritrea achieved independence; Ethiopia now uses Djibouti as its major shipping point to the outside world).

In a span of just 15 years, the plan would be to construct a city of 2.5 million people on the Djiboutian side and a city of 4.5 million on the Yemeni side. Skeptics would point to the lack of a publicly-available master plan other than a mission statement, a couple of JPEGs, and conceptual videos like the one at the top of the page, as well as the lack of infrastructure to connect the project to(new, modern highways and railways would have to be built to connect the bridge to major cities like Addia Ababa, Nairobi, Jeddah, Dubai and Riyadh, all hundreds of kilometres away). It’s hard to believe that in that short of a time with so much to be built entirely from scratch in an relatively unpopulated area that the twin cities could be turned into the ‘financial, educational, and medical hub of Africa’, as was hoped for in the announcement ceremony in 2008.

Bridge Horn Cities

Phase I of the project would see a 3.5 km long-bridge between mainland Yemen and the island of Perim as well as 4 km of highway on the island itself. Phase II would see 13 km worth of suspension bridges and 8 km of girder bridges connecting Perim to Djibouti, including the world’s longest suspension bridge mentioned above. As the waters of the Bab-el-Mandeb are up to 300 m deep, the bridge’s pylons would have to be 700 m high (400 m of which would be above water) in order to support the structure.

The project’s proponents are Tarek bin Laden (construction magnate and member of the wealthy Yemeni-Saudi family whose most infamous member was you-know-who) and Al-Noor Holding Investment LLC based out of Dubai. In addition to the cities to be built at each end of the Bridge of the Horns, Al-Noor cities are also proposed for Syria, Egypt, Sudan, and the Mecca-Jeddah corridor in Saudi Arabia. The Djiboutian government seems rather eager to proceed; it has already set aside hundreds of square kilometres of land for the development of an Al-Noor city on its end. The total cost of the bridges and cities would be US$200 billion, of which at least $50 billion has supposedly already been procured.It would certainly help in fighting the 40-to-60-percent unemployment rate and crippling debt currently seen in the resource-poor country; attempting to assist both Dijbouti and Yemen with their economic woes was indeed part of Al-Noor’s plan for the project.

For all of the proposals and agreements, there still has yet to be much action beyond opening ceremonies. If you’re wondering why you haven’t heard about the project recently (most news seemed to peter out around 2009), that’s because it’s been delayed since last year (around the same time construction on the US$20 billion Phase I was to have begun), as neither the Yemeni nor the Djiboutian government have signed a framework agreement that would give Al-Noor the go-ahead to proceed. Since then, news of the project has been rather nonexistent. Considering the Dubai debt crunch, ongoing turmoil in Yemen, and the fanciful nature of the project to begin with, we might not be hearing about the Bridge of the Horns or the Al-Noor cities for a while.


Further Reading

Al-Noor Holding Investment (n.d.) .Home.
Available at Accessed 25 June 2011.

BBC News (2008). Tarek Bin Laden’s Red Sea bridge. 22 February 2008.
Available at Accessed 25 June 2011.

Economist, The. (2008). Djibouti: St Tropez in the Horn? 19 March 2008.
Available at Accessed 25 June 2011.

Economist, The. (2008). The Red Sea: Can it really be bridged? 31 March 2008.
Available at Accessed 25 June 2011.

MENAFN (2008). $200bn Al-Noor cities to be built in Yemen and Djibouti. 30 July 2008.
Available at Accessed 24 June 2011.

Sawyer, T. (2007). Notice-to-Proceed Launches Ambitious Red Sea Crossing. Engineering News-Record, 1 May 2007.
Available at Accessed 24 June 2011.

SteelGuru (2010). Phase I of Yemen and Djibouti Causeway delayed. 22 June 2010.
Available at Accessed 24 June 2011.


this content was originally posted by author ‘kuschk’ on


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